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    Ôn TN-14 chuyên đề về Gerund and Infinitive

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    Người gửi: Lê Kim Tường (trang riêng)
    Ngày gửi: 22h:43' 13-05-2009
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    14 CHUYÊN ĐỀ VỀ GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
    GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
    A gerund = the V-ing form of a verb An ifinitive = to + the simple form of verb
    1/ USING GERUNDS AS THE OBJECTS OF PREPOSITIONS:
    (a)We talked about going to Canada for our vacation.
    (b)Sue is in charge of organizing the meeting. (c)I`m interested in learning more about your work
    (d)I`m used to sleeping with the window open. (e)I`m accustomed to sleeping with the window open. (f)I look forward to going home next month. (g)They object to changing their plans at this late date. ---> In (d) through (g): to is a preposition, not part of an infinitive form; so a greund follows
    (h)We talked about not going to the meeting, but finally decided we should go. ---> Negative form: not precedes a gerund
    Note: Câu (e) trong Britisg English có thể viết: I`m accustomed to sleep with the window open.  
    2/ COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS
    (a) I enjoy playing tennis ---> Gerunds are used as the objects of certain verbs. In (a), enjoy is followed by a gerund (playing). enjoy is not followed by an infinitive. INCORRECT: I enjoy to play tennis. Common verbs that are followed by gerunds are given in the list below.
    (b) Joe quit smoking (c) Joe gave up smoking ---> (b) and (c) have the same meaning. Some two-word verbs, e.g., give up, are followed by gerunds. These two-word verbs are given in parentheses in the list below
    VERB + GERUND
    enjoy appreciate mind quit (give up) finish (get through) stop avoid postpone (put off) delay keep (keep on) consider (think about) discuss (talk about) mention suggest 
    (a) Did you go shopping? (b) We went fishing yesterday. ---> Go is followed by a gerund in certain idiomatic expressions to express, for the most part, recreational activities
    GO + GERUND go birdwatching go boating go bowling go camping go canoeing go dancing go fishing go hiking go hunting go jogging go mountain climbing go running go sailing go shopping go sightseeing go shaking go skiing go sledding go swimming go tobogganing go window shopping  
    4/ COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS
    VERB + INFINITIVE (a) I hope to see again soon (b) He promised to be here by ten (c) He promised not to be late
    VERB + (PRO)NOUN + INFINITIVE (d) Mr. Lee told me to be here at ten o`clock. (e) The police ordered the driver to stop. ---> Some verbs are followed by a (pro)noun and then an infinitive. See Group B below
    (f) I was told to be here at ten o`clock. (g) The driver was ordered to stop. ---> These verbs are fllowed immediately by an infinitive when they are used in passive
    (h) I expect to pass the test (i) I expect Mary to pass the test ---> Ask, expext, would like, want, and need may or may not be followed by a (pro)noun object.
    GROUP A: VERB + INFINITIVE
    hope to plan to intend to decide to promise to agree to offer to refuse to seem to appear to pretend to ask to expect to would like to want to need to
    GROUP B: VERB + (PRO)NOUN + INFINITIVE
    tell someone to advise someone to (*) encourage someone to remind someone to invite someone to permit someone to allow someone to warn someone to require someone to order someone to force someone to ask someone to expext someone to would like someone to want someone to need someone to
    (*) A gerund is used after advise(active) if there is no (pro)noun object.
     5/ COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY EITHER INFINITIVE OR GERUNDS
    Some verbs can be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund, sometimes with no difference in meaning, as in Group A below, and sometimes with a difference meanning, as in Group B below.
    GROUP A: VERB + INFINITIVE OR GERUND (WITH NO DIFFERENCE IN MEANING) The verbs in Group A may be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund with little or no difference in meaning
    begin start like continue like love prefer (*) hate can`t stand can`t bear
    (a) It began to rain./ It began raining (b) I started to work./ I started working
     
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